word Jacobite comes from the Jacob's or James' from the Royal
House of Stuart. The followers of these James' were known as Jacobites.
was being ruled by a Protestant Queen Elizabeth I when she died
she was succeeded by James VI of Scotland. England being a mainly
protestant country did not take to being ruled by James a catholic
King from Scotland. The Stuarts were eventually exiled and forced
to go to France.
the reigning monarch Queen Anne died without an heir the Act of
Union 1707, amongst other things allowed the House of Hanover
in Germany to take over the crown, something the English desperately
forty years the Stuarts, the legitimate Blood line to the throne
had been claiming the throne of both Scotland and England also
Ireland. But religion and politics kept the Stuarts out.
VIII the old pretender had a lot of support from within France,
Ireland and Scotland even some in England but he never really
did anything about it
his son was born a new fire was fuelled with the passions of his
unhappy followers. Charles Edward Stuart (Bonnie Prince Charlie)
realised that he could fulfil the dream and regain the crown that
was rightfully his. Now 23 years old with the support of his father
and the French he decided to make his claim to the crown. He travelled
to Scotland to rally support but along the way the French had
a change of heart and withdrew their support. Without military
support there was little he could do but hoping that support from
the Scots and the Irish might stir the French into re-affirming
their previous support.
he arrived in the Highlands his support began to gain momentum
and his army of faithful Highlanders flocked to his support. He
made his way south to Edinburgh, which he entered without opposition,
and then at Prestonpans south of Edinburgh he defeated Cove's
army of 4000. It seemed that The Young Pretender, as he became
known would do what he said he would.
could have stayed in Edinburgh and ruled Scotland but he knew
that the English would amass a large army and push him back out.
His only choice was to continue to march south.
II put together an army of British, Dutch, Germans and mercenaries
from all over under the charge of General Wade and William Augustus
Duke of Cumberland.
verse was added to the National Anthem: -
grant that Marshal Wade
by thy mighty aid
he sedition hush
like a torrent rush
Scots to crush
save the King
had now been in England for 26 days and was in Derby, 120 miles
from London. Cumberland thought that he was in Wales trying to
get more support but he was wrong. And this was the closet the
Jacobites ever got to their objective. Cumberland sent a spy to
the Jacobite camp with the news that a force of 30,000 men were
heading straight for them. Little did they know that is was a
deception and they decided that they should return home. Short
of support and supplies, winter upon them all were in favour of
returning home and waiting for the spring. This gave Cumberland
the chance to follow them. Charles with his army of just over
5,000 and an army of, so he believed, behind him knew this was
his only realistic choice.
his way to Stirling his men still had it in them to take on the
English at Falkirk and beat them, however without ammunition and
sapped of energy they made camp at Stirling for 5 weeks while
the Prince moved on to Glasgow.
they slowly made their way back home to the Highlands. Barely
had they made camp in Inverness when the news arrived that Cumberland
had landed at Nairn 16 miles from Inverness. Cold, exhausted and
freezing some of his army went home to their families, some stayed.
Thinking to strike first he sent 1,500 of his best troops to make
a night march on Cumberland's camp. In the morning they returned
having had no success. Later that morning April 16th 1746 Cumberland
marched his army to Culloden Moor and faced the Clansmen.
over 4,000 Jacobites stood in the snow, some having been up all
night after their night march to Nairn, all were starving, tired
and the worse for wear. A mixture of Clans, Irish, old men and
young boys, facing 9,000 veterans, well supplied infantry and
troops were made up from English veterans fresh from Europe and
over 4,000 Scots, in some case it was Clansman against Clansman,
brother against brother.
English had cannon and rifles enough ammunition on the Princes
side all they had left was the Highland way "The Charge"
the first volley the Princes troops were cut down by the dozen
it was over in a few minutes all that was left was to run or to
charge - outnumbered 2 to 1 they charge Cumberland's right flank
for a brief spell the right were scattered but closing ranks they
began the massacre. In 30 minutes it was all over those who could
ran for cover and back to their homes. By Cumberland's own estimate
some 2,000 Highlanders lay dead on Culloden Moor. It didn't end
there "The Butcher Cumberland" gave the order "No
Quarter Given" his army then marched on and killed every
wounded Highlander left on the field. They then marched on to
Inverness and carried on their work in the homes in Inverness
looking for Jacobites but all were labelled as one Men, Women,
Children, the old and the young put either to the bayonet, hangman's
rope or simply burnt to death in their houses.
orders were obeyed "No Quarter Given" and none was.
slaughter did not end there for months his army moved around the
Highlands clearing out any threat once and for all.
months passed before the hunt for Jacobites finally eased off.
It was at this time Bonnie Prince Charlie made his escape back
were scattered to the four corners of the earth even sold as slaves.
Our native language Gaelic was banned and it was a hanging offence
if spoken. Wearing the tartan was also a hanging offence.
times were known as The Highland Clearances.
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